The hardships that we are facing nowadays are growing daily and their impacts are obvious on the economic, cultural and social aspects. One of the supreme difficulties that currently faces Egypt are water shortage and pollution of water resources that prompts tragic consequences on the agricultural sector and as agriculture is one of the most water consuming sectors. and with the rising threat of fatal impacts on the crop yield it became our responsibility to solve this problem by purifying and saving water for the upcoming generations. After researching and analyzing this problem from Several perspectives, in addition to gathering information on various waste water resources we chose agricultural drainage due to its numerous advantages as:
I. It is a neglected water supply.
II. It is a bountiful supply as its widely available across agricultural lands.
III. It contains decent percentage of valuable substance like fertilizers that can benefit the plant.
IV. By using this water supply we will decrease the amount of used irrigation water and also help decrease environmental pollution caused by agricultural drainage disposal.
Then After researching on soil types, we found that Loamy soil is the most suitable soil for agricultural use and we chose soil with high salinity levels in addition to high heavy metal content and low PH value as this soil damages the produced crops and lowers its economic value. after analyzing the soil problems, we designed our project to decrease the salinity and heavy metal content to meet the FAO and 48 law irrigation water standards. As by passing the agricultural drainage through our system, the banana peels in the heavy metal removal phase will adsorb heavy metals to its Surface and consequently decrease its content over time. that’s because banana peels contain negatively charged carboxylic acids like malic acid that attracts positively charged heavy metal ions and adorbs it to the surface So after passing by the first phase the heavy metal content drastically decreased than the original content. also, by passing through the filter paper any large solid particles will be removed and by passing the water through the filtration phase (the sand, gravels and activated carbon) will remove any suspended solids, harmful bacteria, odor, and color. So, by using our treated water for irrigating the crops we will decrease the soil’s contamination level and increase the quality of the produced crops and After testing our project, we made sure that its results are efficient by comparing the results with the standards from FAO and 48 law. Then after getting the results of the treated agricultural drainage, we focused on the impact of the treated water on the crops, we chose barley as it is the third worldwide cereal crops, inexpensive, has an exceptional erosion control capability in addition to weed suppression in semi-arid regions and in light soils.
While doing our project we profited from diverse subjects like chemistry as we learned about various water properties like adsorption rate of chemical reaction and how surface area affects it that we applied on banana peels also we learned about colligative properties and used it to determine the TDS and salinity level in the sample and lastly we learned how to calculate the PH and POH to determine the acidity and basicity of water and make it appropriate for irrigation . Also, we benefited from earth science as knew porosity and permeability of materials that we used in making the sand and gravel filter, we grasped information about different water pollutants and its effect on irrigation water and crop yield. We also knew about various water resources and its different uses including irrigation and agricultural purposes .and finally, we learned in physics about gravity which helped us in designing the prototype where gravity is supposed to drive water through the different treatment phases.